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Bulletin No. 61. 






U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL TURE, 

DIVISION or ClIh.MIM'ItY. 



PURE-FOOD LAWS 



EUEOPEAK COtTNTBIES 



AFFK( TIN<i 



AMERICAN EXPORTS 



PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

II. W. WILEY, • 

CHTEF CHEMIST OF THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AQRICDX'] 

\V. I). BIGELOW, 

SECOND ASSISTANT CHEMIST/ * 




^SSs^^ 



\VASHIX(iT« I 
GOVKBNMBNT PRINTING i r I l BE. 
L90 I. 



Bulletin No. 61. 

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 



PURE-FOOD LAWS 



EUROPEAN COUNTRIES 



AFFECTING 



AMERICAN EXPORTS. 



PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

II. W. WILEY, 

CHIEF CHEMIST OF THE U. 8. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



W. I). BIGELOW, 

SECOND ASSISTANT CHEMIST. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOYER N M E \ t PRINTING ill I i: 
L901. 



I 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



U. S. Detainment of Agmcultube, 

Division of Chemistry, 
Washington, D. C, January 3, 1901. 
Sir: [ transmit herewith, for your inspection and approbation, the 
manuscript of Bulletin No. 61, of the Division of Chemisl ry, containing 
abstracts of the laws regulating the sale of food products in foreign 
countries. 

This bulletin has been prepared, by your direction, in accordance 
with the provisions made by the act of Congress providing for an 
inspection, by the Secretary of Agriculture, of food products intended 
for export to foreign countries. 

H. W. Wiley, 

Chief ( % mist. 
Hon. James Wilson. 

St CTi /"/'// of 4 [<J ricul t " r< . 



INTRODUCTION. 



Food products exported from the United States to foreign countries 
are sold in accordance with the local regulations of the several coun- 
tries into which they are imported. In order that our food products 
may successfully meet the requirements of foreign Legislation, it is 
important that they be inspected before shipment and a certificate of 
their composition be furnished for the use of the officials of foreign 
count lie-. 

The Secretary of Agriculture is empowered by the Congress of the 
United State- to conduct an inspection of this kind in an enactment 
which authorizes — 

the Secretary of Agriculture to investigate the character of the chemical and phys- 
ical tests which are applied to American food products in foreign countries, and to 
inspect before shipment, when desired by the shippers or owners of these food prod- 
acts, American food products intended for countries where chemical and physical 
tests are required before said food products are allowed to he sold in the countries 
mentioned. 

In harmony with the first part of this authority, this bulletin has been 
prepared especially for the benefit of our exporters of foods, in order 
thai they may know the exact conditions in which their foods must be 
to comply with the Legal restrictions of foreign countries. 

This bulletin does not assume to give the full text of all the pure- 
food laws of foreign countries, not- does it enter into the decisions of 
the courts, in the several countries mentioned, relating to the execu- 
tion of these laws. It simply gives a brief summary of the points 
which are most important and with which our exporters of foods should 
be thoroughly acquainted. If the foods which are sent abroad are in 
condition to meet the requirements contained iii this bulletin, it is not 
probable that they will be subjected to any hurtful restraint. 

Furthermore, when the inspection of such exported foods has been 
thoroughly established the exporter will be furnished with an official 
certificate which can be presented to the officers of foreign countries 
charged with the enforcement of pure-food laws. Ourfood products 
on reaching foreign countries should thereby be protected from erro- 
neous or incomplete analysis or unjust discrimination, either from the 
analytical or legal point of view . 



The suspicion has been at times justly entertained that American 
food products in foreign countries have been condemned and refused 
sale on insufficient grounds. The inspection of our food products 
before shipment to foreign countries should allay this suspicion and 
should also result in securing greater freedom from adulteration, and 
this is one of the great points of advantage which should accrue from 
the rigid execution of the law authorizing inspection. The manufac- 
ture and sale of adulterated food products under the guise of pure 
foods should be prohibited whether intended for home consumption 
or for exportation. We can not afford to follow the example of some 
countries which exercise a rigid control of food products intended for 
home consumption, but are lenient in the control of similar food prod- 
ucts intended for export to foreign countries. It is quite certain that 
we are receiving in this country many food products 80 adulterated as 
to exclude them from sale in the countries where they are manufac- 
tured. The honesty of commerce and tin 4 good character of our foods 
can be best conserved by requiring for our products exported to 
foreign countries the same freedom from adulteration, the same purity, 
and the same excellent condition which we expect of similar products 
consumed at home. 

One great source of the wealth of our country is the exportation of 
food products. The continued prosperity of our agricultural interests 
depends largely on extending our foreign markets. It is evident that 
one of the best ways of doing this is to send to foreign countries only 
food products of the highest grade and above suspicion of adulteration. 
This bulletin, placed in the hands of our exporters of foods, will guide 
them in their efforts to secure this high standard of exports, and the 
coi-dial cooperation of all exporters is invited to secure to the fullest 
possible extent a proper execution of the provisions of the act of Con- 
gress relating to this matter. 

Regulations for securing samples for inspection and for issuing 
certificates thereof an- now in preparation and will be ready for dis- 
tribution in a short time to exporters of food products (other than meat 
products, which are already provided for under the inspection regula- 
tions of the Bureau of Animal [ndusl ry), and toothers interested in the 
extension <»i our markets for agricultural products in foreign coun- 
tries. Applications for these regulations are invited. Such applica- 
tion- will be placed on file, and the requests will be complied with at 

the earliest possible moment. 

II. W. Wiley, 

( %ief ( '/" mist. 



CONTENTS. 

General summary 7 

Meat products 7 

Dairy products - 7 

Wine and beer 7 

Cereal products 7 

Sugar, glucose, and confections 8 

Artificial sweetening materials 8 

Coloring matter 8 

Chemical preservatives 8 

( lontamination with metals 8 

Austria 9 

("old ring materials i> 

Receptacles LO 

Municipal regulations of Vienna II 

Belgium 11 

Edible fats II 

Butter 12 

Cocoa and choc* date 12 

( Ihicory 13 

Mustard 13 

Fish 14 

Sugar 14 

Saccharin 14 

Flour and bread r> 

Wine 15 

Drill nark 1(> 

Wine L6 

( Oleomargarine 18 

England 18 

France is 

Butter and butter substitutes 18 

Wine... I!) 

Coloring materials L9 

Germany 20 

Meal 20 

Butter and edible Eats 21 

( V >ffee - 22 

Saccharin 22 

Wine 22 

Dteneils, toys, etc 2:; 

Coloring materials 2:; 

Hungary 21 

Alcoholic beverages 2 1 



Page. 

Ital y 25 

Dairy products 25 

Cereal products 25 

Sugar and confections 25 

Beer 26 

Vinegar 26 

( '< >ffee, tea, and chocolate 26 

Meat and nsh 26 

Municipal regulations of Milan 26 

Ron mania 27 

General provisions 27 

Alcoholic beverages 27 

Wine 28 

I Jeer 29 

Vinegar 30 

( Jheese 30 

Butter 31 

Lard and tallow 31 

table oils 31 

reals and Hour 31 

Coffee, tea, cocoa, and chocolate. 32 

Sugar, honey, confections, etc 32 

Sausage 33 

Tunis 34 

Wine 34 

Switzerland 34 

General provisions 34 

Canton of Berne 35 

Canton of < rraubunden 35 

Meat 35 

Butter and butter fats 35 

Flour and meal 35 

Canned vegetables...*! 35 

Honey :; .~> 

Beer. 35 

Wines 35 

I'. randy and liqueurs • ;, > 

Vinegar 36 

Receptacles 36 

Coloring matter 36 

Canton of Lucerne 36 

Beer 37 

Brandy 37 

Butter 37 

Cocoa and cocoa preparations 3" 

Vinegar 37 

Hone) 38 

ffee 38 

Flour 38 

Cider 38 

Wine 38 

Sausage 38 

Cant. ,n of St. Galls 38 

Wine 39 

Beer 39 

Canton of Zurich 39 



PURE-FOOD LAWS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES AFFECTING 
AMERICAN EXPORTS. 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 

With the exceptions noted below, almost any food product which is 
in a good state of preservation and is labeled plainly and distinctly, 
and in such a manner as to give a true idea of its character, may be 
sold in any country. 

MEAT PRODUCTS. 

The new German law prohibits the importation of canned meat, 
sausage, and macerated meat of all descriptions. Fresh meat may be 
imported under restrictions. The addition to meat of preservatives 
and coloring matter is usually prohibited. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

The requirements of various countries regarding dairy product- are 
very similar to those affecting meat. Butter and cheese substitutes 
arc required to be branded according to carefully prescribed directions, 
and the amount of butter fat which these substitutes may contain is 
limited. Belgium requires that oleomargarine shall be sold uncol- 
ored, while in Holland and Denmark a maximum depth of color is 
prescribed. 

WINE AND BEER. 

Only the fermented juice of the fresh grape, subjected to the usual 
cellar manipulation, whose Limits are carefully defined in the various 
countries, may be sold as wine. I f any other saccharine matter or any 
foreign material be employed, the product must be so designated as to 
indicate the fact. Prohibition of the use of chemical preservatives 
and aniline dyes is almost universal, while the employment of all for- 
eign coloring matter is often prohibited. 

'Hie use <>f chemical preservatives and foreign coloring matter with 
beer i- usually prohibited. 

CEREAL PRODU< l 9. 

Almost :ill count lie- require that cereal products shall be prepared 
from grain that Is free from dirt and fungi, mineral matter, and other 
impurities. The mixture of the ground product of various cereals, 
or of cereal flour with pea flour, etc. , is permitted only when properly 
labeled. 

7 



SUGAR, GLUCOSE, AND CONFECTIONS. 

Sugar, glucose, etc., must be commercially pure and must be free 
from admixture with any foreign substance. Confections may be 
colored by harmless coloring materials (a list is usually specified), but 
must be prepared from pure ingredients and must be free from adul- 
teration of any description. 

ARTIFICIAL SWEETENING MATERIALS. 

The sale of foods containing saccharin, sucrol, and similar prepara- 
tions is prohibited in Belgium, France. Germany, Italy, and Rou- 
mania. The importation of saccharin except for medicinal use and 
under prescribed conditions is prohibited by Belgium and Greece. 

COLORING MATTER. 

All countries permit the dyeing of confections and similar articles 
which arc themselves colorless, but are customarily colored artificially. 
Lists of permissible and of prohibited colors have been adopted by 
Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Roumania, and Switzerland. 
Belgium permits mustard to be colored artificially when properly 
labeled. Belgium and Holland require that wine to which coloring 
matter has been added shall be SO marked as to indicate that fact. 
The addition of injurious coloring matter to wine is prohibited in 
Denmark, France, and Tunis. 

CHEMICAL PRESERVATIVES. 

The sale of foods containing these substances is usually prohibited. 
Salicylic acid and boric acid have been used so much more commonly 
than others that legislation is usually directed against them, though 
boards of health and similar bodies which have discretion in the matter 
usually extend the prohibitions to benzoic acid and other preserva- 
tives as they come into use. 

The sale of foods containing preservatives is prohibited in Austria. 
France, Hungary, and Roumania. The sale of beverages containing 
preservatives is prohibited in Belgium, Germany, Tunis, and Switzer- 
land. The addition of salicylic acid to food is prohibited in Buenos 
Ayres and France. Holland does not permit the side of beer con- 
taining salicylic acid, and Spain forbids its addition to wine. Italy 
permits the addition of 0.2 per cent of boric acid to butter, but forbids 
the use <>f other presen ath i 

CON! \mi\ \ti<>\ with METALS. 

Strict regulations regarding the content of poisonous metals of food 
receptacles and utensils used in the preparation of foods have been 
adopted by Austria, Belgium, Prance, Germany, and some of the 

canton- of >\\ it Zetland. 



AUSTRIA. 

COLORING MATERIALS. 

The use of colors which contain any metal except iron and the use 
of gamboge, picric acid, and all aniline derivatives for the purpose of 
coloring food and food products is forbidden. 

For coloring toys, preparations containing arsenic, antimony, lead, 
cadmium, copper, cobalt, nickel, mercury (cinnabar excepted), zinc, or 
gamboge arc prohibited. The use of other metallic colors for coloring 
toys is permitted, provided the color be coated with a waterproof var- 
nish. The colors whose use is forbidden with toys may be employed 
with earthenware, provided they are covered with a glaze which is 
burned in. 

The use of poisonous colors, such as arsenic preparations, with arti- 
ficial flowers and similar substances, is forbidden unless the article be 
covered over with a waterproof varnish. Wall paper and similar 
materia] must not be colored with arsenic preparations. 

The sale of food which has been prepared in vessels coated with 
poisonous colors, or stored in receptacles so coated, is prohibited. The 
importation and sale of wines colored with aniline dyes are prohibited. 
Foods and food products which are themselves white or colorless (con- 
fections, beverages, etc.). but which are ordinarily artificially colored, 
may be colored by any of the following substances, provided the 
articles so colored shall be sold from the factory only in the original 
packages which are distinctly Labeled with the name of the material 
employed for coloring the contents of the package, and also with the 
stered seal or trade mark of tin* manufacturer. The label must 
also bear a statement from a prescribed official laboratory (Chemischen 
Hochschulinstitute) that the contents of the package contain no stlb- 
stances deleterious to health. This statement must bear a later date 
than the latest decision of the health office regarding the subject and 
must be renewed at least annually. The list of aniline colors which 
may be employed under the-e restrictions is as follow-: 

Fuchsiii — rosaniline hydrochlorate. 

Acid fuchsin | rubin ) — sodium or calcium salt of rosaniline disulphonic acid. 

Rocellin — sulpho-oxyazonaphthalin. 

Bordeaux red— formed by the combinations of teta-napththol disulphonic acid 

with diazo compounds of zylol and the higher homologuea of benzene. 
Ponceau red same as Bordeaux red. 
Eosin- tetrabrom-fluorescein. 

hrosin -tetraiodo-fluorescein. 
Phloxin — tetrabrom-dichlor-fluorescein. 

Alizarin blue ( ', : 1 l.,N< >,. 

Aniline blue tripheny] rosaniline. 

r blue tripheny] rosaniline sulphonic acid. • 

I mlulinc the sulphonic acid compound of azo-diphenyl blue and its derivatives. 

Acid yellow R the sodium salt of ainido-a/.o benzene sulphonic acid. 
Trop.colin <)<)<> Sulpho-azo heu/.eiie-ct-naphthol. 
Methyl violet 

Malachite green. 
Naphthol yellow. 



10 

In addition to the above, only the following colors may be added to 
food: 

1 1 It tie. — Tragacanth . 

Red. — Cochineal, carmine, kermes, infusion of red poppy. 
Yellow. — Saffron, safflower, turmeric. 
Blue. — March violet, blue bottle, indigo, prussian blue, ultramarine, sea blue 

(form of artificial ultramarine). 
Grei n. — Spinach juice. 
Violet. — Cochineal infusion with lime water. 
Gold. — Pure gold leaf. 
si/ 1, p. — Pure silver leaf. 

Wrappers for confections, coffees, and other varieties of food must 
either be white or prepared from material which is naturally colored. 
If a wrapper which is artificially colored be employed, a second wrap- 
per of the character above described must be placed between it and 
the inclosed product, and no artificially colored wrapper may be used 
in any case to inclose any but a dry. solid material. The use of wrap- 
pers containing copper salts is especially prohibited. 

RECEPTACLES. 

Food receptacles and utensils intended for the preparation of food 
must not be either partially or entirely composed of an alloy contain- 
ing more than L0 parts of lead per loo parts of the alloy. The inside 
of such receptacles must not be coated with tin which contains lead. 
Such receptacles must not he soldered with an alloy containing more 
than L0 per cent of lead. In case of glazed and enameled ware, lead 
must not be present in such state that it will be dissolved by boiling 
one-half hour with a 4 per cent solution of acetic acid. The glass or 
enamel mii-t not be so attached to the vessel that it will scale oil. 

Metallic pails <>f nursing bottles must not contain more than 1 per 
cent of lead. Metal foil, which is used as a wrapper for- such prod- 
ucts as snuff and tobacco, must not contain more than I per cent of 
lead. Vessels which have been cleaned with the aid of leaden shot 
must not he used as receptacles for food products. The sale of food 

products which have been ground with millstones filled with lead or 
an alloy containing lead is prohibited. 

Rubber or caoutchouc which contains lead or zinc inu>t not enter 
into the composition of such articles as nipples of nursery bottles, 
rubber rings, nipple shields, etc.. or as receptacles for such articles 
a- i>eci-. wine, vinegar, and preserves, or of vessels which are to he 

used in the preparation of food product- or a- receptacles for the 

same. 

If antimony sulphid enters into the composition of vessels which 
are used iii connection with food product-, it inu>t lie so prepared that 

no antimony i- dissolved i>\ a dilute solution of tartaric acid. -Copper 
ami brass vessels must not be used in the preparation of foods unless 



11 

the inner side be coated with lead-free tin. All manipulations are 
prohibited which could by any means bring copper compounds into 
the composition of food materials. 

The addition of fluorids to foods is especially prohibited, as is also 
the addition of salicylic acid to wine. 

MUNICIPAL REGULATIONS OF VIENNA. 

Municipal regulations for Vienna prescribe that the term " butter" 
shall be used only for the exclusive product of pure milk or cream. 
Fats from all other sources must be designated as margarine butter, 
lard, or compound lard, according to their character. Margarine 
butter must be molded in brick-form prints, and the words "Marga- 
rinebutter" must be marked on every print in distinct characters of 
such size that the words shall extend the entire length of the print. 
The wrapper in which each print is sold must also be marked in dis- 
tinct indelible 4 characters with the words "Margarinebutter." Every 
receptacle containing compound lard must be distinctly printed with 
the name " Margarineschmalz " or " Kunstfett." The terms "Echte- 
butter" or "Butterschmalz" are applied only to articles containing 
fat obtained from pure milk. "Schweinefett" musl he used only to 
designate pure lard. "Margarinebutter" is applied to all butter 
substitutes which do not consist exclusively of butter fat. ••Kunst- 
fett" is u^(h\ to designate compound lard. 

BELGIUM. 
EDIBLE FATS. 

The word "lard" musi be applied only to pure unmixed swine fat. 
All other edible fats, excepting butter and margarine, must be so 
marked as to indicate exactly their origin, or with the words. •• mixed 
fat " (graisse melangee). 

All receptacles containing other edible fats than lard, butter, and 
oleomargarine, must he plainly marked as described above, and also 
with the name of the manufacturer or dealer, or with some registered 
mark. 

Lard and other edible fats which contain more than 1 per cenl of 
water or sail musl be labeled, •■watered*' (aqueux), <>r "salted" (sal*'). 
The addition of mineral substances, other than salt, and of chemical 
preservatives and glycerin is forbidden. 

It is forbidden to sell spoiled or deteriorated edible oik as food. All 
receptacles containing oils must be branded with the word fc< oil" imme- 
diately preceded by a word in similar type which will give the true 
and exact source of the contents of the receptacle; for instance, olive 
oil. peanut oil. sesame oil. etc. 



12 



BUTTER. 



The term " butter " must be used only with reference to fat obtained 
exclusively from milk or cream with or without the addition of color- 
ing matter or salt. All butter containing other additions and all 
butter substitutes must be designated as margarine. Margarine must 
not contain more than 5 per cent of butter fat and must not be arti- 
ficially colored. The maximum color permitted in margarine may be 
decided by the minister of agriculture. These regulations regarding 
the addition of butter fat to margarine and the height of color of the 
same are not applied to margarine intended for export from Belgium. 

The receptacles and packages which contain margarine must be 
plainly labeled with the word "margarine*' in Letters at least '2 cm 
high, as well as the name of the manufacturer or dealer. Margarine 
which is not in packages must be molded in cubical form with the 
word "margarine" impressed, as well as the name of the manufac- 
turers or dealers. The sale of rancid butter or butter made from the 
milk of diseased or improperly fed cows is forbidden. It is also 
required that margarine shall be fresh and made from the fat of 
healthy animals. The addition of glycerin to butter and margarine 
is prohibited. 

COCOA AND CHOCOLATE. 

The term "cocoa mass" must be used exclusively for the product of 
tin- seed of the cocoa tree, whether it be raw or roasted, entire, hulled, 
or ground, with, or without the addition of foreign substances. 
Finally, such product may be melted or molded in ingots or tablet form 
or pulverized. The term cocoa may be applied to the prepared product 
of the cocoa tree from which a portion of the fat has been removed, 
provided that the fat content of the product is not Less than 20 per 
(tut. The term ''alkalized cocoa" may be used to describe the product 
to which an addition of alkaline carbonate has been made to render it 
more soluble: but the alkaline carbonate so added must not exceed :'» per 
ecnl of the total weight of the product. Cocoa which contains more 
than 3 per cent of alkaline carbonate is considered unwholesome and 
its -ale is forbidden. The characterization " alkalized " is no< neces- 
sary if the product i- intended for export from Belgium. 

Cocoa which is prepared otherwise than by the methods described 
above must be marked <»n the w rapper with the word "cocoa." followed 
in the same type by words which will give an exact description of the 
method used in preparation. The term chocolate is applied to the 
product made exclusively from hulled cocoa, to which at least 35 per 
cent of Its weight of cane sugar has been added, with or without the 
addit ion of spic< 

Products which contain 35 per cent of hulled cocoa, but at the same 
time other substances than sugar and spices, can be Bold only when 



13 

marked on the wrapper in the same type as the word "chocolate" with 
a word which will give an exact description of the foreign substances 
present, or when labeled with a name in which the word "chocolate" 
does not appear. When molded in tablet form, the above description 
must be impressed or printed in raised characters on every tablet. 
Any preparation which contains less than 35 per cent of hulled cocoa 
must not be sold as cocoa bon bons or under any other name in which 
the word " cocoa" or "chocolate" appears. All bills and shipping- 
receipts must be designated in the same manner as the preparations 
described above. All packages of cocoa must be marked with the 
name of the manufacturer or dealer or with the registered mark. 
These provisions apply to ordinary chocolate in tablet, block, or pow- 
dered form, or chocolate croquettes, but not to special preparations 
containing* chocolate sold by confectioners and bakers. 

CHICORY. 

The term ■•chicory" musl be applied exclusively to tin 1 product of 
the chicory root, either in its natural condition or by any appropriate 
treatment, such a- roasting, powdering, drying, etc. Chicory must 
not contain more than 15 per cent of water (dried al LOO C.). The 
ash content of the dried material must not exceed lo per cent when 
finely powdered, or 8 per cent when coarsely powdered. Chicory 
must not lose more than half its weight when extracted with boiling- 
water. Chicory which is put up in packages, with the weight of the 
contents marked on the package, may have a higher water content 
than 15 per cent if the weight of substance in the package is corre- 
spondingly greater than that stated on the label. An addition of fat 
or saccharine matter not exceeding '2 per cent of the total substance is 
permitted. Bags and other receptacles in which chicory is shipped or 
Bold must bear the name of the pucker or dealer, or some registered 
mark. 

Ml MAIM). 

The sale of any substance other than a mixture prepared of ground 
black and white mustard seed, under the unqualified name of "mustard," 
i- prohibited. All similar preparations, such as those containing pep- 
per, estragon, rice, and foreign coloring matter, can be sold only when 
each package bears in the same type as the word "mustard" the names 
of all foreign substances present, or the designation "prepared mus- 
tard," or some designation not containing the word mustard may be 
employed. In the preparation of mustard the use of vinegar which 
doe- not comply with the Imw of Januarj :'.. l^'.'i. is prohibited. The 
use of deteriorated, ile. aye.l. or unwholesome substances in manufac- 
turing prepared mustard is forbidden. Mustard preparations which 
do not comply with these requirements and are not intended for use 



14 

as a condiment must be plainly labeled with a statement of the use 
for which they are intended. All packages of mustard and mustard 
preparation- must be marked with the names of the manufacturers or 

dealers or with a registered label. 

FISH. 

Fresh or preserved fish which has been mixed with matters other 
than spices, condiments, aromatic jellies the principal ingredient of 
which is gelatin or gelose, must not be sold unless a plain label shall 
indicate the nature of the foreign substance used. Canned-fish prod- 
ucts must have a Label showing the kind of fish, and also, if necessary, 
the kind of oil. etc. used. Fish, shellfish, etc.. caught with Indian 
berry (( '(><■<■, il , is indicus) or other poisonous substances and those 
mixed with antiseptics are declared injurious. No substances injurious 
to health are allowed to be used. Receptacles containing fish must 
bear the name and address or the registered mark of the seller. It 
i< further forbidden to sell or keep in the same premises with food 
products fish not intended for alimentary purposes unless these are 
clearly marked "Not eatable," or the like. 

SUGAR. 

It is provided that the word "sugar" and similar terms shall refer 
only to the product obtained from the juice of sugar cane, sugar beet, 
and similar plants. All other products, such as dextrose, which are 
used for sweetening purposes must he properly Labeled. Mixtures of 
cane sugar with <>t her materials, such as dextrose, can be sold only when 
so Labeled as to inform the purchaser of the character of the goods. 

White sugar must not contain more than <>.:.> per cent of mineral sub- 
stances, raw sugar not more than 2.5 per cent of mineral substances, 
a ii< I glucose not more than 0.8 per cent of mineral substances. Glucose 
must not contain more than 0. 05. grams of free acids (calculated to sul- 
phuric acid) pei- loo grams of dry matter, nor appreciable quantities 
of oxalates, oxalic acid, arsenic compounds, lead. /inc. or barium. 

Sugar must not he deteriorated in any manner for instance, coated 
with mold. The addition of preservatives and the presence of fungi- 
cide- are forbidden. Bags, barrels, and other receptacles must be 
plainly marked with the name of the manufacturer or dealer. 

- \< < II \KIV 

The importation, manufacture, shipping, and selling of saccharin 
and other products, which are formed synthetically and possess a sweet 
taste similar to that of sugar hut have no outritive value, are pro- 
hibited. 'The use of saccharin and similar products in the preparation 
of foods and the sale of foods containing them are also prohibited. 






15 

FLOUR AND BREAD. 

The words " flour" and "bread "must be used exclusively to denote 
wheat products. For designating the product of any other cereal it is 
necessary to emplo} r also the name of that cereal, for instance, " rye 
flour," ' ' rye bread," etc. Mixtures of rye flour with other cereals must 
be designated by the word ' w meteil. " Flour must be manufactured from 
grain which is sound and in good condition and which has been thor- 
oughly cleaned. The sale of flour which is adulterated with mineral 
matter is prohibited. The word "tapioca" must be used exclusively 
to refer to food products derived from the cassava root. 

WINE. 

In the application of these regulations one understands — 

(1) By wine, the product of alcoholic fermentation of the juice or must of the fresh 
grape. 

(2) By sweet wines or liqueurs orcordials ("via de liqueur" or "vin de dessert"), 
the product of alcoholic fermentation, whether it be of the juice or must of the grape, 
more or less dried, or concentrated by evaporation, containing usually about 14 to L8 
per cent of alcohol and an excess of natural grape sugar*. 

(3) By sparkling wines (vin mousseux), the product of the fermentation of the 
juice or must of the fresh raisin surcharged with pure carbonic acid. 

(4) By wine of the second vat, wine made from the residuum of grapes (piquette), 
wine from the lees or dregs, wine from the dried grape, sparkling wine from the dried 
grape, eider, Bparkling cider, hydromel, etc., the vinous beverages which present an 
analogy with wines and which are the product of the fermentation of the juice or 
musl extract of the dregs or Lees of the fresh or dried grape, of the juice of the apple, 
of honey, etc., with or without the addition of sugar, alcohol', or pure carbonic acid. 

It is forbidden to sell or expose for sale, to hold, or transport for 
sale or for delivery as wine, any wine to which foreign substances 
have been added. 

This prohibition does not apply to the following: 

(1) The addition ( ,f clarifying agents acting mechanically (albumin, gelatin). 

(2) The addition of ordinary salt on condition that the content of chlorids, cal- 
culated as sodium chlorid, does not exceed 2 grams per liter. 

(3) The addition of gypsum on the condition that the content of sulphates, cal- 
culated a- potassium sulphate, does not exceed L' grains per liter. 

(4) Th<- presence of sulphurous acid, because of sulphuring the casks, <>n condition 
that the wine shall not contain more than 2 milligrams of free sulphurous acid nor 

more than 20 milligrams of total sulphurous acid per 100 i-r. 

(5) The addition of pure sugar or alcohol, provided thai the receptacles in which 
the wine is placed shall hear in a conspicuous place and in plain characters, a> large 
and as conspicuous as any otherletters used For other inscriptions, the word "sugared " 
or "alcoholized" ("sucr6" or "alcoolis6"), as the case may be, and that this 
statement be reproduced on the Invoice, the hill of lading, or the booking-office ticket. 

\\ inc. as well a- t he \ inous beverages having mm analog) t<> \\ inc. to 
which have been added foreign substances, with the exception of 
those enumerated above, can not he kept for sale, exposed lor sale, 



16 

for delivery or retail, except in receptacles bearing in a prominent 
place and in legible characters, as large and as conspicuous as those 
employed for any other inscription, an indication of the materials 

introduced in their preparation, for example, " watered wine." 
"colored wine." "aromatized wine." "dried grape wine." "cherry 
wine." or an inscription sufficiently clear to make known their origin, 
Buch as "piquette," "cider." "hydromel." This statement need not 
include the names of the vineyards of true and natural wines. These 
should be found in the invoices and the hills of lading- or booking-office 
ticket-. 

Wines, liqueurs (vins de liqueurs), sparkling wines, and vinous 
beverages to which the following substances have been added are 
declared injurious: 

Ethers, or essentia] oils (oil of wine); 

Bitter almond, cherry, laurel; 

Alkaloids; 

Compounds of arsenic, lead, zinc, aluminum, barium, strontium, calcium, mag- 
nesium, alkalies; 

Mineral acids, free or combined oxalic acid; 

Salicylic acid or other antiseptics (with the exception made in favor of sul- 
phurous acid in the amount specified) ; 

( rlycerinj 

Sugars, cask sugars, or impure alcohol, the sale of which is forbidden for edible 
purposes by the rules relative to those commodities; alcohols other than ethyl 
alcohol; 

Sulphates, in greater quantity than indicated above, or of more than twice that 
quantity in the case of liqueurs I vins de liqueurs). 

It is forbidden to add to wine or liqueurs (\ in de liqueur), to spark- 
ling wines, or vinous beverages, any of the substances mentioned 
above, or any other substance injurious or dangerous to the health. 

All casks in which wine, liqueurs, and vinous beverages will he 
exposed for sale or delivered must hear the name of the linn, as well 
as the address, or at least the registered mark of the maker or seller. 

DENMARK. 

WINK. 

'Idie following additions to wine are prohibited: 

Alum, or other Boluble aluminum salts; barium compounds; strontium compounds; 
magnesium compounds; boric acid; Balicy lie acid; spirits containing fusel oil; crude 
(nol technically pure) glucose; serines; injurious coloring material; glycerin; sac- 
charin; flavoring materials, such as ethereal oils, essences, etc. ; gums, and other 
organic and inorganic materials intended to increase the extract content. 

The following additions are permitted without declaration: 

The use of common clarifying agents, Buch as albumin, gelatin, isinglass, Spanish 
earth, and other common substances; the neutralization of excessive acid with pre 
cipitated calcium carbonate; the customary sulphuring of casks; the pasteurization 
of wine; the blending of wines (in blending onl) dry wine- may be mixed with dry 

w in' 



17 

Dry wines must not contain more than 0.2 gram of sulphuric acid 
(calculated to potassium sulphate) per 100 cc. The addition of foreign 
coloring matter is prohibited unless the same is declared on the label. 
The addition to dry wines of saccharine matter either in a solid state 
or in solution is permitted if the same is stated on the label. The 
same is true of the addition of water. These provisions do not apply 
to red wines which are rich in extract and coloring matter and hence 
in their natural state not suitable for consumption, provided that after 
treatment such wines shall not contain less than 2 grams of sugar-free 
extract per 100 cc, and that no sugar other than the ordinary grape 
sugar shall be found in the extract. Wines which shall receive an 
addition of water and which fulfill the required conditions of percent- 
age of extract, etc. may be blended with other wines of normal 
composition without regard to the extract content of the blend so pro- 
duced. The addition of alcohol to dry wine must be indicated on the 
label; this, however, does not apply to the alcohol necessary for ordi- 
nary cellar manipulation. The alcohol so employed must be fully 
refined and of not less than { X).-i:> per cent by volume, and the amount 
added must not exceed 2.5 liters for 240 liters of wine. In the case of 
wine- which arc not fully fermented and whose sugar content is such as 
to make it doubtful whether they should be classified as dry or a- sweet 
wines, the addition of alcohol of not less than 93.25 per cent per vol- 
ume in such quantity that the alcohol content of the product shall not 
exceed IT per cent per volume i- permitted. Poii wine, sherry, 
madeira, and Liqueurs from foreign lands must conform to the custom- 
ary composition of these wines in the country where they are produced. 
These wines may be manufactured from dried grapes under the condi- 
tion that the alcohol content shall not exceed 25 per cent pel- volume, 
and the sugar-free extract shall not be less than '1 grams per loo ee. 
On the other hand, the addition to these wines of sugar or other material 
which is not the product of the grapes, without indicating the same on 
the Label, i- prohibited. Wines of this class which are too low in 
alcohol may he fortified with alcohol of not Less than :•:;.•_>;> per cent 
b\ \ohiine. The alcohol content of the product must not exceed 25 
percent by volume. Dessert wines must he the customary product of 
the region of their production with the exception that they max receh e 
the ordinary cellar manipulation. The term ••champagne" maybe 
applied <»nl\ to wines fermented underpressure. Carbonated wines 
max be sold if properly designated. 

Cognacs, rum, and arak must not receive the addition of alum or 
other soluble aluminum salts, barium compounds, strontium com 
pounds, magnesium compounds, boric acid, salicylic acid, alcohol 
containing fusel oil, crude glucose, kermes, or other unwholesome 
materials. 

L3864— No. <'>l 01 2 



18 



OLEOMARGARINE. 

This product must be branded and put up in prints in a prescribed 
manner; it must not contain more than 50 per cent butter fat, and the 
shade of color permissible is tixed. 

ENGLAND. 

All adulterated or impoverished articles of food must be in packages 

conspicuously marked with the true description of the content- of the 
package. The addition to foods of coloring materials and preservatives 
which are harmless in the quantity employed is permitted. 

It is required that margarine, oiled cheese, etc.. be conspicuously 
marked on the top and sides of each package with the words 
"margarine" or ••margarine cheese," as the case may require. Mar- 
garine must not contain more than 10 per cent of butter fat. Adul- 
terated or impoverished butter, other than margarine, must be in 
packages so marked as to indicate the exact nature of the contents of 
the package 

Every can of condensed, skimmed milk must have a label clearly 
visible to the purchaser, on which the words "machine-skimmed milk" 
or ••skimmed milk," as the case may require, are printed in large, 
legible type. 

FRANCE. 

The law of February '2. L899, regulates the commerce in fertilizers, 

butter, and wines especially; it also applies to all articles of merchan- 
dise of whatever nature. Misrepresentation concerning the nature, 
quality, or quantity of articles covered by this law i> prohibited, 

Cans and similar receptacles containing food must not be coated 
with an alloy containing more than 0.5 per cent of leador<».<»I per 
cent of arsenic, and must not he soldered with an alloy containing 
more than LO per cent of lead or 0-01 per cent of arsenic. 

Only lead-free tin foil may he us^d as wrappers for food materials. 

BUTTEB \M> i-i in i: 81 BSTTT1 TBS. 

The term butter shall be applied only to products made exclusively 
from milk or cream , All other fat materials having the appearance of 
butter must be sold as margarine, and musl not contain more than lo 
pei* cent of butter fat. The receptacle containing oleomargine must he 
indelibly branded with the word "margarine" or "oleomargarine." 
The constituents of the contents of the receptacle and the percentage of 
each constituent present must be given <>n all hills rendered for such 
goods. In wholesale trade, the aame and address of the manufacturer 
must i><- given on the receptacle containing margarine. If sold at 
let ail. margarine must be in cubical prints with the word " margarine" 



19 

or "oleomargarine" impressed on one side of the print. Each print 
must also be inclosed in a wrapper on which the word "margarine" 
or "oleomargarine " is indelibh T printed. Every bill, letter, and pack- 
age in any way relating to the sale or transportation of margarine must 
be distinctly marked with the word "margarine "or "oleomargarine." 

WINE. 

The addition of sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sali- 
cylic acid, boric acid, and analogous substances, as well as the addi- 
tion of coloring matter, is prohibited. Wine must not contain more 
than 0.1 gram of sodium chlorid per 100 cc, or more than 0.2 grams 
of potassium sulphate. 

Wine is denned as the fermented juice of the grape treated in no 
way except by the ordinary cellar manipulation, including the addition 
of sufficient water to the must to reduce its sugar content to 29 grams 
per 100 cc, or the dilution of sufficient pure alcohol to give a normal 
composition to very low wine. The addition of both alcohol and water 
to the same must or wine is not permitted under any circumstances. 

The product of the fermentation of the lees, with or without the 
addition of sugar, and mixtures of the same with wine, can be sold only 
as "Vin de marc" or "Vin de sucre," and receptacles in which the 
same is sold must be conspicuously labeled with an orange-colored 
label containing the appropriate name. 

The product of the fermentation of dried raisins, and mixtures of 
the same with wine, can be sold only as ** Yin de raisins sec," and must 
bear in a conspicuous place a label of green paper marked with its cor- 
rect name. 

COLORING MATERIALS. 

Foods and food products must not be colored with any mineral sub- 
stance, except that prussian blue, ultramarine, chalk, and ochre may 
be used with confections or similar products. Confections and other 

products must not be inclosed in wrappers which are colored with the 
prohibited substances. All confections inclosed in package- must bear 

the name and address of the manufacturer or dealer. The use of 

Litharge, lead acetate, and similar compounds for clarifying saccharine 
products and fermented beverages is forbidden. 

The use of the follow ing coloring materials with fo«>d- i- prohibited: 

Mia, ml colors: 

Compounds "i copper, lead, arsenic, ami mercury, ami barium chromate. 
Organic colon: 

Gamboge; aniline derivatives, such as fuchsin, Lyon blue, flavanilin, methylene 
blue; |>htalciiis ami their derivatives, Buch a- eosine, erythrosin; niton com- 
pounds, such as na|>litli<p| \rll<>w and Victoria yellow ; diazo compounds, such 
as tropeolins ami Kylidine red. 



20 

As exceptions to the above genera] regulations, however, the follow- 
ing compounds may be employed in coloring confections, pastry, and 
Liqueurs, which are ordinarily white or colorless: 

S olors: 

Eoeine (tetra brom-fluorescen). 

Erythrosin (methyl ami ethyl derivatives of eosine. 

Bengal rose, phloxin (iodin and bromin derivatives of flnorescen). 

Bordeaux red and Ponceau red I resulting from the action of the Bulpho-derivatives 
of naphthol on the diaz xyl< 

A.cid fuchsin | without arsenic and prepared by the Coupier method). 
Yellow colors: 

Acid yellow (derivatives of Bulphonates of naphthol). 
Blue colors: 

Lyon blue, light blue, Coupier blue, etc, (derivatives of triphenil rosanilin or of 
diphenylamin i. 
< in < a colors: 

Mixtures of blue and yellow named above. 

Malachite green. 
Violet colors: 

Paris violet or methylanilin violet. 

GERMANY. 

MK AT. 

A now law regulating the preparation, importation, and sale of meat 
and meat products was passed by the Bundesratfa and the Reichstag in 
June L9, L900, to take effecl in April, 1901. Regulations for its 
enforcemenl have not yet been promulgated. The importation, except 
in "free ports," of moat in hermetically sealed cans and similar recep- 
tacles, and of sausage and macerated meat of all descriptions, is 
unequivocally prohibited. 

h i- provided that fresh meat must ho imported in the entire body 
or in hal\ es. The meal musl he so dressed that the breast, diaphragm, 
lungs, heart, and kidneys, ami. in the case of cow-, also the udder, 
retain their natural position in connection with the body. 

Prepared and preserved moat can he imported only when the method 

of preparation or preservation to which it ha- been subjected is such 

a- »o add to or produce in the moat no injurious substances. 

The above requirements do not apply to corned beef, ham, bacon, or 
casings provided that the coined beef is not imported in piecesweigh 
ing less than 1 kilograms (8.8 pound-). Moat which ha- been pre- 
served by processes which will enable it to retain all of the characteristics 
of fresh meal (refrigeration) is subjected to the restrictions applied to 
fresh meat. 

The foregoing regulations are to remain in force until December31, 
. or until other regulations are provided. 

Borse flo-h can be imported only when so designated in the German 
language that it- true nature will be understood by tin- purchaser, 






21 

In Prussia a regulation is in force relating to the amount of flour 
that may be added to the several varieties of sausage. ' ' Fleiseh wurst " 
shall receive at the most 4 per cent. " Blutwurst " and "Leberwurst" 
selling for not more than 0.70 marks per half kilogram shall not con- 
tain more than 5 per cent of flour. u Plockwurst. ,, " Cervelatwurst," 
" Salami wurst," "Bratwurst," " Mettwurst," " Blutwurst" and 
"Leberwurst" which sell for more than 0.70 marks per half kilogram 
must not receive the addition of flour. Sausages which are treated 
with flour must be so marked as to indicate that fact (" Wurst mit 
Mehlzusats"). 

BUTTER AND EDIBLE FATS. 

All packages of butter substitutes, filled cheese, and compound lards 
must be branded "Margarine," " Margarinekase," and " Kunstspeise- 
fett," respectively. Each package must also be marked in a conspicu- 
ous place with a red stripe at least 2 cm wide for packages 35 cm high 
or less and 5 cm wide for higher packages. The same articles, when 
sold at retail, must be in wrappers marked "Margarine," etc., and 
also with the name of the dealer. All prints must be cubical in form 
and stamped ''Margarine," etc., in sunken letters. 

To facilitate the examination of samples, the Bundesrath has decided 
that all fats used in the preparation of butterine shall receive an addi- 
tion of 10 per cent of their weight of sesame oil, and all fats used in 
the preparation of filled cheese shall receive an addition of 5 per cent 
of their weight of sesame oil. The sesame oil employed must be such 
that when a mixture of 0.5 part of sesame oil with 99.5 parts peanut 
or cotton-seed oil be shaken with an equal volume of hydrochloric acid 
(specific gra\ ity L.19) and a few drops of a 2 percent alcoholic solution 
of furfurol a marked red color is imparted to the acid layer. 

Patterns <>f labels to he employed with butter substitute-, etc.. have 

been adopted by the Iiundesrath thus: The space within the line inclos- 
ing the label must not he more than 7 times as long as high, and must 
not he less than 30 nor more than 50 cm high, except that with round 
or oval packages whose greatest diameter does not exceed ir> cm the 
space may be decreased to 15 cm. Directly a hove this label a red -trip 
at least '1 cm wide on packages up to 35 cm high, and at least 5 cm 
wide on higher ones, must extend around the package, hut shall not 

interfere with the mark " Margarine," etc. The name of the manu- 
facturer and the brand must he near the word " Margarine," hut must 
not be in contact with it nor with the encircling line or w^\ hand. The 
designation, name of manufacturer, and brand must either be burned 
in or painted on white or bright yellow ground in black letter-, and must 
be on two opposite sides of package and also on the top. if there he a 
top. and on both ends of casks. In prints, the pattern described above 
must he followed, hut the limitation of size is removed, and the word 



22 

"Margarine" may be divided in two and the word " Margarinekfise" 

in three portions connected by hyphens. 

In Prussia the terms "Smalz," " Bratensmalz," "raffinirtes Smalz," 
etc.. can be applied only to pure lard. Mixtures containing other fats 
or oils must be called by such name as "Speisefett" 

COFFEE. 

Coffee substitutes must be inclosed in packages which bear a label 
stating the chief ingredients in combination with the word "'Kaffee." 
The name of the manufacturer must also be stated on the package. 
Mixtures of coffee and coffee substitutes can be sold only in packages 
which arc plainly marked so as to give the purchaser a true idea of 
the nature of the contents, for instance. "Coffee and coffee -substitute 
mixture" (Kaffee-surrogat-mischung). The name and location of the 
manufacturer must also be stated on the package, as well as the mate- 
rials from which the product is prepared. 

It is forbidden to manufacture, sell, or hold for sale machines for 
the preparation of artificial coffee beans. 

SACCHARIN. 

The manufacture and sale of foods and beverages containing artificial 

sweetening material (saccharin, dulcin, etc.), are prohibited. 

WINE. 

The law prohibits the addition .to wine, wine-like, or wine-containing 
beverages of soluble aluminum salts, barium compounds, boric acid. 
glycerin, kermes, magnesium compounds, salicylic acid, impure 
alcohol, glucose (not commercially pure), strontium compounds, 
and aniline (\\i>>: or the addition of more than 0.2 gram per l<»it <•<•. 
of potaSSUm Sulphate, except in dessert wines (southern sweet wines) 

of foreign origin. The use of "sugar water" and "pressed" grapes; 
of sugar and wine yeast; of raisins, currants, and other sweetening 

material- than cane sugar or dextrose; of acids and tlavors; of gums 

and other substances which influence the extract, excepl as hereafter 
provided, is prohibited unless the goods are so labeled as to indicate 
such additions. Raisins may be added to dessert wines (southern 
-wi.t wine-). The addition of saccharin is forbidden for all wines and 
similar beverages. More liberty is given in sparkling wines. 

The following addition- are permitted: 

Alcohol, not over I percent by volume; small amount of clarifying 
agents (albumen, gelatin, isinglass, etc., sodium chlorid, carbon dioxid, 
and sulphur dioxid); the blending of wine-: neutralization with pure 

precipitated calcium carbonate; addition of SUCb amounts of technic- 
ally pure sucrose, invert sugar, and dextrose as will not bring the 



23 

ratio of ash to extract below that of unsugared wines of the vicinity. 
The extract content must not be below 1.5 grams per 100 cc; the 
extract content less total acids must not be below 1 gram per 100 cc; 
the extract content less fixed acids must not be below 1.1 grams per 
100 cc. The ash must not be below 0.11 gram per 100 cc. 

UTENSILS, TOYS, ETC. 

Cooking utensils and receptacles for foods and vessels used for prep- 
aration of beverages and fruit juices must not contain over 10 per cent 
of lead in any part. The inside must not be coated with an alloy which 
contains over 1 per cent lead, and solder exposed to contents must not 
contain over 10 per cent of lead (except Bolder with lead-free Britannia 
metal). Enamels and glazes must not yield lead on boiling one-half 
hour with a 1 per cent solution of acetic acid. Alloys containing over 
1 per cent of lead must not be used in siphons for carbonated bever- 
ages or for metal parts of nursing bottles. Rubber containing lead 
or zinc must not be used for mouthpieces, nursing bottles, nipple 
shields, etc. Rubber containing lead must not be used for drinking 
cups or toys (except large balls), or for tubes for beer, wine, or vine- 
gar. Containers must not be cleaned with shot. Snuff, chewing 
tobacco, and cheese must not tie wrapped in foil containing over 1 per 
cent lead. Cans must not contain over 1 per cent lead on the inside or 
have exposed solder containing oxer L0 per cent of lead. 

COLORING MATERIALS. 

The following are provisions relating to the addition of coloring 
matter to foods, beverages, toys, cosmetics, and vessels, wrappers, 
and covers for food-: 

The addition of the following to articles of food and drink an 1 pro- 
hibited: Colors which contain antimony, arsenic, barium, lead, cad- 
mium, chromium, copper, mercury, uranium, zinc. tin. gamb< 
corallin, and picric acid. 

Vessels, wrappers, or covers dyed with the above-mentioned colors 
must not be used for holding or protecting articles of food or drink. 
This regulation does not apply to the use of the following: Barium 
sulphate (heavy -par. permanent white), barium colors \'vn^ from ba- 
rium carbonate, chronic green, copper, /.inc. tin. and their alloys, w hen 

applied as metallic colors, cinnabar, tin oxid, tin sulphid in the form 
of gold-bronze ( " musivgold") all vitrified colors in glass, glazes or 
enamels, and colors on the outside of water tight vessels. 

In the manufacture of toys (including picture cards, picture books, 
and water color-, flowerpot covers, and artificial Christmas trees) the 
materials mentioned above a- forbidden are not to be used. This 
regulation does not apply to the articles enumerated above a- excep- 
tions, nor to antinionx sulphid and cadmium sulphid applied a^ color in 



24 

gum; lead oxid in varnish: white lead as a component of the so-called 
molded wax. if the same does nut amount to more than L part in 100; 
lead chromate by itself or in association with lead sulphate, in oil or 
lacquer, covered by lacquer or varnish; zinc colors insoluble in water, 
in rubber toys, if used in the coloring of the rubber, or as lacquer or 
oil color applied with lacquer or varnish, and all vitrified colors applied 
with enamel. 

HUNGARY. 
ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. 

The addition to alcoholic beverages of strong commercial essences 
with a sharp odor, especially of sharp spices and vegetable materials, 
such as pepper, paprika, sea onions, etc. of narcotic substances, fusel 
oil. or any other substance that will increase it- -liar}) of narcotic taste. 
is prohibited. This prohibition dot's not extend to medicinal and 
dietetic alcoholic preparations. 

The manufacture and sale of adulterated wine is prohibited. All 
wine- are considered adulterated which are not exclusively made from 
grape must, with such additions as are necessary in ordinary cellar 
manipulation. It i- also prohibited to misrepresent the location in 
which a wine was made or the variety of grapes used in its manufacture. 

The must may receive additions of refined sugar, grape sugar, or 
fruit sugar, as well as dried berries and dried raisins. In the Toquay 
wine region these additions are not permitted, but since it is fraudu- 
lent to designate wines falsely as to tin 1 place of manufacture or t ho 
variety of grape used, this prohibition does not affect wines from for- 
eign countries. 

The addition of refined alcohol and pure cognac is also permitted, 
and the must may be treated with arsenic-free sulphur and the scum 
removed by skimming. The excessive acidity may be neutralized with 
calcium carbonate or potassium carbonate. In no case, however, is 
any addition permitted which will change the composition to an appre- 
ciable extent or cause its ingredients to vary from the required pro- 
portions. The wines in cellar manipulation may receive an addition 
of refined alcohol or cognac, or the usual harmless clarifying' agents. 
The acidity may be regulated, in the case of excessive acidity, b\ the 

addition of calcium carbonate or potassium carbonate, or the acid may 
be increased by the addition of cream of tartar, tartaric acid, or malic 
aeid. 

Wine may also be sulphured with arsenic-free sulphur and receive 
the proper manipulation for it- preservation, providing that no injuri- 
ous substance be added. In the manufacture of sweel wines refined 
Bugar, saccharine material, caramel, dried raisins, and the required 
amount of yeast may be added for the after fermentation. In no case 
may anything be added in such quantities that the required propor- 



25 

tions of the various ingredients of the wine shall be altered. The 
addition to must or wine of material not specified, or especially of 
saccharin, glycerin, salicylic acid, flavoring extracts, ethereal oils, or 
other liquids, and of all vegetable, mineral, and aniline colors, with the 
exception of safnower, is expressly prohibited. 

Carbonated wines can be sold only under the proper designation. 
The lees may be used in the manufacture of " Tresterwein " when they 
are extracted with sugar water for fermentation, and for " Nachwein" 
when extracted with water and refined alcohol or cognac. 

ITALY. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS. 

The term "butter" must be used only to designate fatty material 
obtained from milk and cream by mechanical operations. The sale of 
abnormal or rancid butter or butter manufactured from the milk of 
diseased or improperly fed cows is prohibited. Butter must contain 
no injurious coloring matter, and must contain no added substances, 
such as foreign fats, flour, sirups, chalk, plaster, or soluble glass. 
No chemical preservatives may be added other than common salt and 
borax, and the latter must not be present in greater quantity than 
Q.2 per cent. The fat content of butter must not be less than 82 
per cent. All edible fats which are to lie used as butter substitutes, 
and all hut ter adulterated with foreign fat. must he sold under some 
su<h name as " margarine." Butter and other edible fats of animal or 
vegetable origin must be in a good state of preservation, and if of 
animal origin must have been prepared from a healthy animal. 

Cheese must contain no substance which is not obtained from milk 
and cream, other than salt and harmless coloring matter. 

Thesaleof eggswhichare tainted or colored with injurious substances 
is forbidden. 

CEREAL PRODUCTS. 

Cereals and mill products must be in a good state of preservation, 

free from mold, weed seed, and other impurities. The addition of 
limn, copper sulphate, zinc sulphate, talc, chalk, plaster, and other 
impurities of all descriptions is forbidden. 

SUGAB \\l> o< »\i i (i i< »\-. 

The word "sugar" is employed to designate the product of the 

sugar cane (»]• sugar beet. It must not contain more than :> percent of 
reducing sugar. Simp-, confections, marmalades, etc.. must not be 

fermented nor in any way deteriorated, and must not contain an\ other 
fruit product than that w hi eh i- represented to be present, nor an \ toxic 
material, such as saccharin, glycerin, oxalic acid, nor such preservatives 

as boric acid and salici lie acid. 



26 

BEER. 

Beer must be made exclusively from the malt, of barley or other 
cereals, with the addition of hops, yeast, and water. The sale of beef 
which has become spoiled or deteriorated from any cause- is prohibited. 
The sale of liqueurs and distilled liquors containing hydrocyanic acid, 
mineral acids, toxic metals, injurious colors, methyl alcohol, picric 
acid, gamboge, or medicinal drugs is prohibited. 

VINEGAR. 

The term "vinegar" is applied exclusively to the fermented product 
of wine. It must not contain less than -± per cent of acetic acid, and 
there must be no addition of coloring matter or other substances. 
Vinegar obtained by the acetic fermentation of beer, cider, or alcohol 
may be sold if properly designated "beer vinegar," etc. The sale of 
vinegar which has become spoiled or deteriorated on account of age 
is prohibited. No free acids, such as sulphuric, hydrochloric, nitric, 
oxalic, and tartaric, and no bisulphite must be present. 

COFFEE, TEA, AND CHOCOLATE. 

The sale of coffee substitutes and adulterated coffee, or coffee col- 
ored by injurious substances, is prohibited. Tea must contain no 
addition of any foreign substance whatever. Chocolate must receive 
no addition of chalk, ocher, or other mineral matter, or indigestible 
or injurious vegetable substances. 

MEAT AND FISH. 

The Italian law requires that prepared meats shall be inclosed in a 
wrapper on which the kind of animal from which the meal was pre- 
pared is plainly stated. It is also required that all meats, blood, etc., 
used in the preparation of sausage and other meat products must be 
In a good state of preservation. The mixture with lard of fat from 
any other source than swine is prohibited. 

The addition of coloring matter to fish, mollusks, and crustacea in 
older to give stale articles a fresh appearance is prohibited. 

Ml \k ii'Ai. REG1 LATION8 OP MILAN. 

The municipal regulations of Milan prohibit the addition of coloring 
matter of any kind to foods and beverages which normally are colored. 
In confections and other foods artificially colored, the coloring matters 
condemned by the German law are prohibited, and all others except 
certain specified colors. The addition of salicylic acid to beer is also 

prohibited. 



27 

ROUMANIA. 
GENERAL PROVISIONS. 

It is forbidden to adulterate food by the addition of foreign mate- 
rials, by removing characteristic ingredients, or by any change of 
composition or character whereb}' the product is made less nutritious, 
less wholesome, or cheaper. The sale of unripe or decayed fruits or 
cereals, or of unwholesome food of any kind, is prohibited. The 
iddition of all poisonous substances to food is prohibited, even when 
such poisonous substance is added in so small an amount as to be ordi- 
narily innocuous. The addition of drugs to food is prohibited, except 
that materials ordinarily used as foods may be used by druggists for 
the purpose of preparing medicines in their ordinary forms. The use 
of injurious coloring materials is prohibited, both as a mixture with 
foods and in coloring wrappers. The use of poisonous metals, such 
is lead, zinc, tin containing more than 1 per cent of lead, and tin or 
»pper containing more than 1 per cent of antimony is prohibited; 

Tinned receptacles must not be coated with an alloy containing 
more than 1 per cent of lead or more than 0.01 per cent of arsenic. 
Grlazed earthenware which is intended as a receptacle for food must 
-iot contain lead so combined as to be extracted by vinegar. Water 
aged in the preparation of brandy and other alcoholic beverages must 
be pure, clear, and free from unwholesome ingredients. The use of 
injurious colors and aromatic essences in the manufacture of brandy 
is prohibited. 

ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. 

The alcohol used in the preparation of alcoholic beverages must con- 
tain none of the first or last distillates, must be free from acetic ether, 
fusel oil. and furfurol. It must contain at least 95 per cent of ethyl 
ilcohol and must answer to the following tests: L0 grams when treated 
with an equal weighl of strong sulphuric acid remain- colorless; L0 
grains when treated with an equal weight of a solution of potassium 
aydroxid (specific gravity L3) must remain colorless: one volume 
when thoroughly mixed with five volumes of water musl not he turbid 
or opalescent; from 20 to 25 <■<• when treated in a porcelain capsule 
with ten drops of colorless aniline or three drops of concentrated 
hydrochloric acid must remain colorless. The percentage of fusel oil 
present must not exceed 0.2 per cent of the absolute alcohol present; 

that of acetic ether musl not exceed o.o:_> per cent: that of furfurol 
nm-t not exceed <U>1 per cent. 

Alcoholic beverages must not contain an excessive amount of aide- 

Lydes, furfurol, methyl alcohol, or fusel oil. The addition of aniline 
derivatives and alkaloids of nitrobenzene, piperine, capsicin, cocaine, 
Bthyl nitrite, ethyl nitrate, ethyl ether, methyl ether, anivl ether, and 

the ethers ^( the various capronic and caprilic acids is prohibited. 



28 

Aloes, gamboge, jalap, or saccharin must not be added. The use of 
mineral acids and the compounds of the heavy metals such as had. 
copper, and zinc is forbidden. The use of alum and of refuse animal 
charcoal which has not beeo purified is forbidden. Alcoholic bever- 
ages may be colored only with the following: Turmeric, alcoholic 
extract of carrots, safranin, Bafflower, marigold, cochineal, carmin, 
orseille, sandal red. Brazil wood, mallow, whortleberries, currants, 
raspberries, cherries, anchusa roots, indigo carmin. caramel, chloro- 
phyl preparations, and litmus. For varying shades mixtures of the 
above may be employed. 

The use of the following colors with alcoholic beverages is prohib- 
ited: Aniline colors of all descriptions; colors containing copper, lead, 
zinc, aluminum, antimony, and arsenic. 

The addition of alcohol and the use of sulphurous acid for the pur- 
pose of regulating the fermentation in the preparation of distilled 
beverages is prohibited. 

Distilled liquors must have the following alcohol content: 

Ordinary brandy from 12 to 35 per cent by volume; 

Plum brandy from 20 to 35 per cent by volume; 

Cherry brandy from 15 to 40 per cent by volume; 

Sweetened liqueurs, cremes, rosolio, etc., from 15 to 40 percent by volume; 

Cognac from 45 to 70 per cent by volume; 

Rum and arak from 4") to 70 per cent by volume. 

WINK. 

Wine i^ described as a product of the alcoholic fermentation ^\' grape 
must, without addition of any description. If the source of the wine 
is not giveo it must answer the following description: 

The extract content must not be Less than L.4 grama per 100 cc for white wines 

and 1.7 grams per 100 cc for red wines. Sweet wines and southern dessert wines 
must contain at least 3 grams of extract per LOO cc. 

The i Minimum limit for ash content is one-tenth that of the extract, viz. 0.14 gram 
per LOO CC in white wines and 0.17 gram per LOO cc in red wines, while the a-h 
content of southern sweet wines must not he less than 0.3 gram per 100 cc. 

The percentage of alcohol must be between 6.5 and L5 percent by volume. South- 
ern sweet wines must contain from 8 to 20 per cent of alcohol by volume and sparkling 
w Lnes from 8 to L5 per cent by volume. 

The glycerin content must be at least 7 parts by weight for LOO parts of alcohol. 
Sweet wines must contain sugar in the proportion of 30 per cent for an alcohol content 
of 15 per cent. 

The content of fixed acids must heat least 0.45 gram per loo cc and the tartaric- 
acid content must be from one-fifth to one-sixth of the fixed acids present The 
sodium-chlorid content must not exceed 0.005 gram per LOOcc and the sulphuric 

acid, calculated ;e- potassium sulphate, must not exceed 0.2 gram per 100 cc. 

Sparkling wines must not contain more than 0.05 gram potassium sulphate per 
loo cc. Wine- iim-t not contain more than 0.0008 gram of free sulphurous acid o- 
less than 0.0035 gram of phosphoric acid P,0 . per 100 cc. 

New wines whose fermentation is qo( completed must contain :it 
least L.55 gram extract per LOO cc, exclusive of sugar. Wines which 



29 

do not come within the standard given above or which contain more 
than 0.2 gram of acetic acid per LOO cc must not be sold as beverages. 
The sale of wine prepared from dried raisins and the addition to wine 
If any substance other than the product of the fresh grapes, except in 
the manufacture of medicinal preparations, is forbidden. 

Wines made by the alcoholic fermentation of dry raisins, of mix- 
lures of raisins with grapes, or of saccharine solutions of any sort 
other than pure musts, and those treated as follows are held to be 
adulterated: 

The mixing with wines of organic or inorganic acids, or aromatic essences; the 
addition of glycerin, salicylic acid, boric acid, barium sulphate, strontium, alumi- 
num and magnesium compounds, and of such substances as gum, dextrin, and resin, 
for the purpose of increasing the extract content. 

The addition of the following substances to wine is especially pro- 
hibited: 

Compounds of aluminum, magnesium, strontium, barium; the sulphites and sul- 
phates of calcium and sodium; tree mineral acids, compounds of lead, zinc, tin, 
BOpper, and arsenic; mineral colors and aniline colors of all descriptions; glucose, 
biolasses, or crude sugar; crude alcohol; glycerin; boric acid and salicylic acid and 
their compounds; artificial essences and saccharin; pokeweed berries and juice of the 
same. 

The following methods of treatment are permitted: 

The blending of pure wines; neutralization of excessive acidity with calcium car- 
bonate; filtration through pure vegetable charcoal; the use of clarifying agents, such 
as gelatin, albumin, isinglass, and kaolin: the sulphuring of empty casks by means 
of pure arsenic-free sulphur; the addition of pure refined spirits to Bweet wine in 
jpnch quantities thai the limits given above shall be retained; the addition to sweet 
wine of refined sugar or glucose in such quantities that the limits given above -hall 
be retained; the washing of casks with refined alcohol before they are filled, pro- 
vided that the volume of the alcohol so employed does not exceed oliedialt per cent 

the volume of the wine manufactured: the addition <>f pure carbon diozid in the 
preparation of carbonated wines; the plastering of fed wine-, provided that the 
product does not contain more than 0.2 gram potassium sulphate per 1 1 HI cc; t he addi- 
tion of must; and the pasteurizing of wines. 

The manipulations mentioned above, however, must not be carried to 
Buch ;in extent that the composition of the wine will be rendered dif- 
ferent from the required standard-. All manipulations which change 
the character of the wine and serve t<> adulterate it are forbidden. 

Bl i.i;. 

Beer must be prepared exclusively from malted barley, Imp-, yeast, 
and water, by alcoholic fermentation. If a portion of the barle} is 

replaced l>\ any other materia] the product must he designated by a 
name indicating that fact. 

Beer may vary in color from dark yellow to clear brown; it must 
ha\ e a characteristic odor and taste and be charged with carbon dioxid. 
It must contain from 2.5 to »; pet- cent of alcohol, from '•.•'- t<> 8 per 



30 

cent of extract, from 2.5 to 4. 9 per cent of dextrin, and from 0.5 to 3 
per cent of maltose. 

The original wort from which it was prepared must have had an 

extract content of at least 9 per cent and the degree of fermentation 
must be at least 48 per cent. The total acid content must not exceed 
0.35 per cent. The acetic-acid content must not exceed 0.06 per cent; 
the sulphuric-acid content must not exceed 0.2 per cent; the glycerin 
content must not exceed 0.04 per cent: the ash content must not exceed 
0.3 per cent. 

The addition to beer of alkaline carbonate for the purpose of neu- 
tralizing excessive acidity, of calcium or sodium sulphites, salicylic 
and boric acids, and similar compounds, i- prohibited. 

No coloring matter must be added except caramel and that naturally 
extracted from malt. The addition of saccharin, aromatic essences 
and extracts, hop substitutes, such as picric acid and its compounds, 
aloes, and all injurious substances in general, is prohibited. 

VINEGAR, 

Vinegar is defined as the product of the oxidation of refined alcohol 
or the fermentation of wine. beer, and the juices of various fruits, or 
as the mixture of pure concentrated acetic acid with pure water. It 
must be a clear Liquid, free from suspended matter, and may have the 
color of the material from which it was prepared, varying from bright 
yellow to red. or it may be colored with pure caramel. 

Vinegar must not contain more than 8 per cent of acetic acid nol- 
le-- than -I- per cent. The manufacture of vinegar from crude alcohol 
is prohibited. 

The addition of the following substances to vinegar is prohibited: 

Sodium chlorid; mineral acids: bisulphites; j >« os. .n< >u.~ metals ami similar sub- 
stances, such as Lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, and antimony; Mack pepper, cayenne 
pepper, or other substances for the purpose <>i' gh inga sharp or bitter taste; products 
of the destructive distillation of wood | acetic acid excepted i, Buch as methyl alcohol, 
acetone, etc. 

( HEESE. 

Cheese must contain nothing but the norma] casein, proteids, butter 

fat. milk sugar, ami mineral bodies obtained in it- preparation from 
pure milk. Its reaction must be neutral or acid. The sale of cheese 
manufactured from milk of diseased or improperly \'rd cow- is pro- 
hibited. The addition to cheese <»f any foreign substance, such as 
alkali, for the purpose of neutralization, foreign animal of vegetable 

fat. starch, and Hour i- prohibited. The addition of artificial essences 

for the purpose of ei\ inc.- a ripe taste to green cheese is prohibited. 

The addition of injurious colors and of artificial colors in general and 

of chemical preservatives is prohibited. 



31 

BUTTER. 

Butter is defined as the product of milk or cream of the cow or 
buffalo. It is white or yellow in color, of uniform consistency, and 
contains a small amount of casein, milk sugar, lactic acid, unorganized 
bodies, etc. Butter must contain at least 82 per cent of fat. and the 
sale of butter prepared from adulterated milk or the milk of diseased 
or improperly fed cows is prohibited. 

Butter must have the normal taste and odor and be free from ran- 
cidity, bitterness, fungi, dirt, etc. The addition of injurious artifi- 
cial, mineral, or vegetable colors is prohibited. The content of 
sodium chlorid must not exceed 8 per cent, and the addition of for- 
eign materials, such as starch, flour, and foreign fats is prohibited. 

LARD AND TALLOW. 

The addition to lard and tallow of foreign materials, such as foreign 
fat. alum, calcium carbonate, gypsum, sodium carbonate, starch. Hour, 
and the sale of rancid and deteriorated fat are forbidden. 

VEGETABLE OILS. 

The -ale as foods of vegetable oils obtained with the assistance of 
heat, hot water, steam, or by means of heating the press, or separated 
by means of such solvents as carbon disulphid. petroleum ether, and 
benzene, is prohibited. The admixture with olive oil of any other oil, 
such a- sesame, peanut, rape-seed, sunflower, cotton-seed, mineral, and 
animal oils, is prohibited. 

The sale as food of the oil prepared from decayed or fermented 
olives i- prohibited. Table oil niu4 be free from rancidity, and the 
total acid content must not exceed L.66 per cent. The following are 
the requirements as to specific gravity of the oils mentioned: 

Rape-seed oil, 0.91 I i<» 0.917; olive oil, 0.915 to 0.918; ol< il, 0.915 t.» 0.922; cotton- 
seed oil, 0.922 to 0.931; Besame oil, 0.923 to 0.924; poppy oil, 0.924 to 0.937; nutoil, 
0.925 t..o.!»L'7; Linseed oil, 0.932 to 0.937. 

0ESEAD9 and I'l.iU'i;. 

Cereals which are unripe, decayed, or decomposed, covered with 
fungus, affected by vegetable or animal parasites, or mixed with other 
varieties of cereals, can not be Bold for human food, nor -hall Hour or 

meal prepared from the above be sold as food. The -ale of a mixture 
of wheat, rye. barley, or maize flour with leguminous Hour or other 
foreign material, except when properly designated, is forbidden. The 

ash of cereal- and of the Hour prepared from the -anie nm-t have an 

alkaline react ion. The sale <^\' Hour which ha- deteriorated iii ;m\ wav 
or which contain- more than 18 per cent of water IS forbidden. The 



32 

-ale of wheat Hour which contain- a mixture of the flour of any other 
substances, such as rye or barley, is forbidden. The addition of min- 
eral substances, such as calcium carbonate and gypsum, is forbidden. 

COFFEE, TEA, COCOA, AND CHOCOLATE. 

The adulteration of coffee with any foreign substances, or of coffee 

from which any ingredient has been extracted, is prohibited. The mix- 
ture with coffee of artificial coffee beans or the sale of artificially 
colored coffee, or of coffee treated with any oil. roasted after the addi- 
tion of sugar, or which has spoiled or deteriorated in any way. is 
prohibited- The sale of coffee substitutes may be permitted under 
some appropriate designation, such as "chicory." "barley coffee,' 5 
and '"lie; coffee.'" These substitutes, however, musi be free from 
injurious substances, and must not contain more than 5 per cent of 
ash or more than 1-1- per cent of moisture. 

The term '•cocoa** must be applied exclusively to the product of the 
cocoa bean. Cocoa powder, from which a portion of the fat has been 
removed, may be sold in packages which are so designated as to inform 
the purchaser of their nature, provided that they shall contain at 
least 22 per cent of cocoa butter. The term "soluble cocoa'* may be 
applied to the same product when alkalized, provided that it contain 
not more than 2 per cent of potassium or sodium carbonate. The 
addition of artificial coloring matter, of foreign starch or fat. or for- 
eign substances of any description, and the sale of cocoa so adulterated 
are prohibited. The sale of cocoa butter containing an excessive 
amount of cocoa shells is forbidden. 

The term "chocolate" is applied to the product of the cocoa bean 
which has been mixed with sugar, with or without the addition of such 
flavoring materials as vanilla, cinnamon, etc. The sale of tea which 
contains the leaf of any other plant, which contains any foreign sub 
Stance, or whose nature has been changed by extraction, is forbidden. 

81 GAB, HONE! . CONFB< TIONS, ETC. 

It ifi forbidden tosell confections in receptacles of poisonous metals, 

or iii receptacles which are tinned or coated with an alloy containing 
more than 1 per cent of lead, or which have in t heir composit ion any 
metal or glaze which is attacked by the confection or the sirup con- 
taining it. 

Hone} is defined as being the natural product of the bee. and con- 
taining from 78 to 92 per cent of invert sugar; from l to :: per cent 
of cane sugar; from 1 bo 2 per cent of proteids; from 0.12 to 0.44 per 
cent of ash; from L0 to lb..') per cent of water. 

Glucose which is intended for use in manufacturing confections 
must be commercially pure, and must contain from 88 to 95 per cent of 



33 

glucose; from 5 to 1'2 per cent of water: not more than 0.5 percent 
of ash, and must contain no unfermentable matter, preservatives, or 
other foreign material. 

Sugar musl not be mixed with grape sugar, ultramarine, or indigo 
blue to a greater extent than 0.2 per cent; nor with gypsum, barites, 
kaolin, flour, saccharin, dulcin, or other similar impurities. 

Confections must not be mixed with dulcin. with flour, mineral sub- 
stances, or with those coloring matters which are prohibited in the 
general regulations regarding artificial color-. They must not be 
ornamented with flower-. Leaves, etc.. which contain injurious coloring 
material nor inclosed in receptacle- or wrappers colored with injurious 
compound-. 

The following color- are permitted: 

White. — Ground cereal and potato flour. 

YeUow. — Carrot, safranin, logwood, marigold. 

ll-'K — Sorrel, madder, cochineal, carmine, red sandalwood. 

Green. — Chlorophyl, spinach, and the mixtures of yellow and blue colors thai 

are themselves permissible. 
Blue. — Litmus and indigo carmine. 

Violet. — Mixtures of blue and red colors that are permissible. 
Brown. — Caramel, cocoa beans, licorice. 
Black. — Purified bister. 

The u-c of all colors which contain antimony, arsenic, barium com- 
pound-, cadmium, chromium, tin. copper, mercury, lead, uranium. 
zinc, picric acid, and aniline derivatives i- prohibited. The use of 
gilded or silvered bronze or tinfoil which contains tin. lead. /inc. 
nickel, antimony, or aluminum, is forbidden. 

SAUSAGE. 

Sausage and other forms of preserved meat musl he free from liver, 
kidney-, lungs, and viscera and consist entirely of the flesh of edible 
domestic animals, game, and birds put up while fresh. 

The preparation of canned and preserved meat product- from 
unsound or unwholesome meat or from the flesh of diseased animals 
or of other animal- than those ordinarily used a- food i- forbidden. 
The preparation of canned and preserved ti-h which has been killed 
by mean- of poisonous substances, the manufacture of food products 
from tlie same, and the preserving of fish products in oil that i- ran- 
cid «>!• for any reason not edible, is prohibited. The use of commercial 
preservatives, such a- salicylic acid or boric acid, tannin, alum, sul- 
phurous acid, potassium chlorid, sulphites, glycerin, wood vinegar, 
impure vinegar, fusel oil. and other unwholesome substances for the 
preservation of meat or vegetables, i- prohibited. 

The coloration of preserved vegetables and fruit- with mineral and 
aniline colors i- forbidden, a- i- also tin' coloration of sausages and 
presen ed meats. 

L3864 N<». 61 "1 



34 

TUNIS. 
WIN K 

Wine is defined as the product of the fermentation of fresh grapes. 
The product obtained by the fermentation with water of the residuum 
of fresh grapes (after expression), whether with or without the addi- 
tion of sugar, and the mixture of this product with wine in whatever 
proportion, can not he sold unless properly designated on all casks and 
receptacles and on all books, invoices, hills of lading, etc. 

The product of the fermentation with water of dried raisins can not 
be -<>ld except under the name of raisin wine. The same holds true 
in the case of mixtures of raisin wine with true wine, whatever may he 
the proportion. 

Any addition of the following substances to wine is considered an 
adulteration: 

1. Any coloring matter whatever. 

2. Sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, salicylic, boric, or other analogous acids. 

3. More than 0.1 gram of sodinni chlorid per lot) re. 

4. The product of the fermentation or distillation of figs, Locust pods, pimpernel 

(lowers, bellflower, rice, barley, and other materials containing sugar. 

The casks or receptacles in which plastered wine is placed must be 
marked with large letters indicating the same. The books, bills of 

Lading, invoices, etc., must contain the same information. The con- 
tent of potussium sulphate must not exceed 0.2 gram per 100 cc in 

any case. 

SWITZERLAND. 

GENERAL PROVISIONS. 

Beer must be made exclusively of cereals, either fresh or malted, 
hop-, yeast, and water, by means of mashing and alcohol fermentation. 
All beer when sold must he clear and not rendered turbid by yeast, 
bacteria, acetic fermentation, or in any other manner. In the prepara- 
tion <>f beer the following are prohibited: Malt and hop substitutes, 
all coloring matter except that of malt, preservatives such as salicylic 
acid and boric acid, and saccharin; and the addition of alkalies for 
the purpose of correcting ive acidity. 

Sulphurous acid must not he present in greater quantities than <>.<>< >l l 

gram per LOO CC. Beer shall contain more extract than alcohol, and 

the extract content of the original wort must not be Less than L2 per 

cent. The extract content of the wort is obtained by adding together 

the extract content of the heel' and twice its alcohol content. The 

degree of fermentation must not he less than 48 per cent, or if Less 
than that amount the reducing substances present, calculated as maltose, 

must not exceed :; per cent. The degree of fermentation of the orig- 
inal wort is obtained l>\ the formula LOO (J - rftct ), in which x is 
the extract of the original wort. The foregoing standards do not apply 

to the so-called double )h'vvs, such as hock heer and salvator beer. 



35 



CANTON OF BERNE. 



The addition to meat of boric acid, salicylic acid, formalin, sulphite.-. 
and all other chemical preservatives, except sodium chlorid and potas- 
sium nitrate, is prohibited. 

CANTON OF ORAUBCNDEN. 

Meat, — Meat and meat products must have an appetizing appear- 
ance, a normal odor and taste, and must not contain any harmful 
impurities, such as metallic poison, drugs, ptomaines, parasites, etc. 
The addition of preservatives, with the exception of salt and saltpeter, 
is forbidden. Sausage must not contain more than To per cent of 
water, and bread crumbs, etc., shall not be added. 

Butter and hatter fats, — The term ••butter" shall be used only with 
reference to the product of fresh milk and cream, either in the fresh 
state or the melted fat of the same. The fat content of fresh butter 
must beat least 82 percent. Butter -hall not form a part of the name 
of any product containing fat from other sources than pure milk. The 
sale as food of fat which has become rancid, or has in any way dete- 
riorated, is forbidden. 

Flour <i/i</ meal. All Hour and meal must be so marked as to indi- 
cate the grain from which it 'k prepared. It must be free from mineral 
impurities, fungi, and weed seeds. 

Can/ned vegetables. Canned vegetables must not contain over lo 
mg of copper salts per LOO grams of fresh food. 

Honey. The term " honey " must be confined to the unmixed product 
of the bee. It shall not be \\>vd either by itself or in combination 
with other syllables or words to designate adulterated honey or honey 
substitutes. Such adulterated honey and honey substitutes must be 
inclosed in receptacles bearing Labels on which the term "sirup" 
appears in distinct type. Also all invoices and shipping receipts of 
such adulterated goods must be marked with tin 1 word "sirup " 

II i /■. The term '" beer" must be \\>v<\ only in reference to beer made 

exclusively from malted barley, hops, yeast, and water, by means of 
mashing and alcoholic fermentation. In case part of the barley is 
replaced by some other cereal the same must be plainly stated on the 
label. Malt and hop substitutes are prohibited. Beer must be clear, 
wholesome, and free from yeast; the original wort from which ii was 

prepared must have had an extract content of at least L2 per cent. 

ps whose degree of fermentation is less than \& per cent must not 
contain over 3 per cent of maltose. These regulations do not apply 

bo the --'-called double beers, such as bock beer and salvator beer. 

Tin 1 ash content must not exceed 0.3 pei- cent, and the sulphurous 
acid content must not exceed 0.004 gram per 100 grams. The presence 
of boric and salicylic acids in beers is forbidden. 

Wines. The term "'wine" shall be applied exclusively to the l».\ 
erage prepared from the juice of fresh grapes without the addition of 



36 

any foreign substances. Wines whose volume has been increased by 
the addition of any foreign substances, or which are prepared from any 
other fruits than wine grapes, shall be so Labeled as to indicate that 

fact. The -ale of wines which have become sour or deteriorated in 

any way is forbidden. Wine whose sulphurous acid content, calcu- 
lated as potassium sulphate, exceed- 0.1 gram per LOO cc shall be 
designated as "plastered ;" if it exceed 0.2 gram per loo cc it shall be 
designated as "excessively plastered." Wine must not contain more 
than 0.002 gram of free sulphurous acid or 0.018 gram of combined 
sulphurous acid per liter. A higher content of sulphurous acid is con- 
sidered unwholesome. The addition of preservatives, such as boric 
and salicylic acids, is prohibited. 

The alcohol content of medicinal wines shall not be less than 13 or 
more than 20 per cent by volume. They shall not contain less than 
0.2 gram of ash or more than 0.2 gram of acetic acid. 0.2 gram of 
potassium sulphate, or 0.002 gram of total sulphurous acid, per loo cc. 

Brandy <m<l liqueurs. — The presence of poisonous metallic com- 
pounds, such as copper or lead, and of free mineral acids is prohib- 
ited. The alcohol of brandy must not contain more than 0.2 per cent 
of fusel oil. 

Vmegar. -Vinegar must not contain less than 8 per cent of anhy- 
drous acetic acid. The presence of free mineral acid is prohibited. 
The -ale as wine vinegar of vinegar made from any other substance 
than wine is prohibited. 

Receptacles. —All receptacles and wrappers for food must be free 
from harmful substances. The use of lead foil or of tm foil containing 
Lead is especially prohibited. 

Coloring matter. — The addition of artificial colors to meat or meat 
products, wine- and similar beverages, beer, distilled and wood vine- 
gar, coffee, tea. chocolate, condiments, fruit juice-, fruit lemonades, 
and bakers 1 products supposed to contain eggs is prohibited. The 
addition to foods of artificial colors which contain harmful substance-. 
such a- the following, is prohibited: Antimony, arsenic, barium, lead. 
cadmium, copper (except that copper salts may be added to canned 
stables in amounts not exceeding L0 mg per LOO grams), chromium. 
mercury, /inc. and tin. The use of gamboge and injurious aniline 
color- is also prohibited. 

CANTON OF i.i CERN I . 

The adulteration of foods by extracting from, adding to, or chang 

in- in any way that will decrease I he value, LS prohibited. Only 
substances may he added which are necessary in preparation, trans 
poiiation. or preservation, and which do not increase weight or injur • 
quality. The name musl not misrepresent place and manner of pr< 



37 

duction and manufacture. Food that is unripe, unsound, or for any 
reason unfit for food must not be sold. Standards for cocao, etc.. 
vineg-ar. honey, coffee, flour (wheat or rye), milk. must, tea. drinking- 
water, and wine are given. 

Beer. — Beer must contain more extract than alcohol, and must be 
prepared from wort containing not less than 12 per cent of solids. 
The glycerine content must not exceed 0.4- per cent. Xot more than 
3 cc of normal alkali shall be required for the neutralization of total 
acids in loo grain- of beer from which carbon dioxid has been 
removed by shaking. Xot more than 1 cc of normal soda solution 
shall be required for the neutralization of volatile acids. The con- 
tent of sulphurous acid must not exceed <>.<>< »14 grams per LOO cc. At 
least 48 per cent of the original extract of the wort must have been 
fermented. These standards do not apply to the so-called double 
beers (bock beer and salvator). Beer which is turbid because of the 
presence of yeast or bacteria shall not be sold. The addition of 
unwholesome preservatives, such as calcium bisulphite, and of alkaline 
substances, such as potash and soda, for the purpose of correcting 
excessive acidity, is prohibited. The use of so-called beer color (cara- 
mel, etc. ) is prohibited. 

Brandy. — The 4 addition of 15 cc of brandy to an equal volume of 
distilled water and a few drops of a solution of potassium ferro- 
cyanide should not produce a red-brown precipitate, and the addition 
of an excess of ammonia must not cause a marked blue color (presence 
of copper). Brandy must contain no trace of lead or free inorganic 
acid. The content of fusel oil must not be sufficient to produce a tur- 
bidity when the brandy is mixed with '■) volumes of water, or to allow 
the globules of fusel oil to separate when 1 volume of brandy is mixed 
with 1 volume of ether and 2 volume- of water. Brandy must con- 
tain at least In per cent of alcohol by volume, exeept old brandy, 
whose alcoholic content may be a- low as 44 per ••cut by volume. 

ButU /:- Butter must contain no fat except that prepared from milk. 
Fresh butter must contain at least 82 per cent of butter fat. The 
word "butter" must not be used, even in combination with other 
word-. t«» designate articles containing fat from other sources than 
milk. For instance, such terms as " Kunstbutter " (artificial butter) 
and •• Kubelbutter" (tub but ten are not permitted for articles contain- 
ing fat from other sources than milk. 

( nit ,!/,(/ ,;,(■(„! j > ,< J )i 7 lU 1 7 7, / / / g . Foivigl) 1 1 ( 1 ( 1 1 1 1 < ) II - t() COCOa. Midi US 

Hour, starch, and spices, and even sugar, must be stated on the outside 
of each package. Tin addition of alkaline carbonate not to exceed 2 
percent may be made to the hulled cocoa powder for the purpose of 
rendering it soluble. 

Vinegar. Vinegar must contain at least I percent of acetic acid. 
The addition of other acids, of pungent or aromatic substances, and 



38 

of aniline colors. is forbidden. Vinegar made by diluting so-called 
vinegar essence must be designated as "essence vinegar.' 5 

C5 C O 

Honey. — Only the unsophisticated product of bees can be designated 
as honey. The word honey can not be used in combination with other 
word- to designate any article other than pure bee honey; for instance, 
such terms as "table honey" and "Swiss honey" are permitted only 
for pure honey. All honey substitutes, such a- commercial glucose, 
molasses, and all mixtures of the same with honey, must be so labeled 
as to inform the purchaser of the exact origin and composition of the 
content- of the package. 

Coffee, — Coffee must not contain more than 4 per cent of ash. except 
Mocha coffee, which may contain 8 per cent. The use of artificial 
colors in coffee and tin 1 fraudulent mixture of adulterants is prohibited. 

Finn,-. — The ash content shall not exceed 2 per cent for rye Hour or 
1.1 percent for wheat Hour. The water content of wheat and rye flour 
must not exceed 15 percent. That of other varieties must not exceed 
L8 per cent. 

Cider. Fermented cider shall not contain less than 3 percent of 
alcohol by volume, L.5 per cent of extract, or 0.15 per cent of ash. 

Wine. Wine must not contain less than 6.24 per cent of alcohol by 
volume. The extract content must not be less than L.5 per cent for 
red wine or less than 1.4 per cent in white wine. The ash content of 
wine must he at least 0.15 per cent. By ash content is meant carbon- 
ated ash. The percentage of volatile acid expressed a- acetic acid must 
not exceed ".2 per cent. The sulphuric acid (combined) content. 
expressed in terms of potassium sulphate, must not exceed 0.2 per cent 
for medicinal wine and must not exceed 0.1 per cent in dry wine-. 
Wine- which contain over 0.00s grams of sulphurous acid per LOO cc 
must not be -<>ld for consumption without previous cellar manipula- 
tion. These restrictions are not applied to sweet or sparkling wine-, 
and apply only to medicinal wine- when the Latter avc specified. The 
addition of artificial colors i- prohibited. 

Sausage. Sausage and an\ similar preparations must have been 
prepared exclusively from sound, fresh meat. fat. liver, and blood, 

Vfith the customary addition of spice's. All other addition-, -ucli as 

starchy material-, are considered a- adulterants. 

< W I ( i\ < )! -I . o \l.l-. 

All materials intended for food must he so Labeled a- to inform the 
purchaser as to their exact nature. The sale of adulterated or unwhole- 
some food- i- prohibited. Fhe usual regulations concerning the -ale 
of butter, oleomargarine, lard, etc.. are enforced. The so called Sf 
(jail's sausage (Kalbfleischbratwurst) must not contain more than 2 
pen- cent of added starch <>r flour. Horse-meat sausage musl not con- 
tain more than :; per cent of starch Or flour. The -ale of cider and 



39 

similar preparations made from green fruit is forbidden. The sale of 
all foods contaminated with poisonous metals, such as zinc and lead. 
or inclosed in receptacles lined with zinc or lead alloys, is forbidden. 

Wme. — Medicinal wines must not contain more than 0.002 gram of 
total sulphurous acid, more than 0.2 gram of sulphuric acid expre 
in terms of potassium sulphate, or more than 0.2 gram of acetic acid 
per Inn <•<•. White wines must not contain more than 0.002 gram of 
free sulphurous acid or more than 0.018 gram of combined sulphurous 
acid per 100 cc. Wine whose sulphurous-acid content exceeds this 
limit is considered unwholesome and must be subjected to cellar 
manipulation before it is sold as a beverage. Wine which has become 
sour or turbid owing to the acetic-acid fermentation, or- which has 
deteriorated in any other way. must not be sold as a beverage. 

Beer. — The addition of alkaline substances for the purpose of neu- 
tralizing the excessive acidity of beer is prohibited. The addition to 
beer of salicylic or boric acid is prohibited. The sulphurous-acid con- 
tent of beer must not exceed 0.0014 gram per loo cc. New beer or 
bed- which has become turbid by reasoo of the presence of yeast cells 
or bacteria must not be sold as a beverage. 

(ANTON OF ZURICH. 

The addition of all preservatives to meat, except salt and saltpeter, 
is prohibited. 

CohVe substitutes shall be named according to the chief ingredient 
when possible, a- ••chicory coffee," "malt coffee," etc. When the 
product is a mixture of a number of substances, it shall be designated as 
"Kaffee surrogate," and either the chief constituents shall be printed 
on the label or all of the constituents communicated to the board of 
health. 

o 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

HUM 

3 1262 08929 7385